Bio-Control Agents

Bioagents for Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes

Fungal bioagents
1.Paecilomyces lilacinus
  •    Soil borne fungus
  •     Good root colonizers and rhizosphere competitor
  •     Parasitic on nematodes egg
  •    Antagonistic to juvenile stages
  •    Suppress nematode population density and increase crop yields
2.Pachonia chlaydosporium
  •    Soil borne fungus
  •     Colonize on plant roots or confined to rhizoplane
  •     Parasitic on nematodes egg
  •     Produce toxins that inhibit hatching or kill eggs of nematodes
  •     Parasite of female root-knot nematodes
3. Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum
  •    Active rhizosphere colonizers
  •    Compete for nutrients
  •    Produce antibiotics that affect nematodes
Bacterial bioagents
1. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis
  •    Colonize on roots and exclude nematode niche
  •    Produce antibiotic compounds
  •    Induce systemic resistance in plant
2. Pasteuria penetrans
  •    Nematode antagonists and endospore-forming bacteria
  •    Obligate parasites of plant-parasitic nematodes
  •    Endo-parasite, reduce infectivity and also fecundity
Advantage of using bio-control agents
  •    Cost effective, reusable, farmer & eco-friendly products
  •    Inherently harmless in comparison with chemical pesticides
  •    As a component of IPM, can greatly decrease the use of chemical pesticides
  •    Increase the yield of the crop & lead to sustainable productivity in a long run
  •    They have specific mode of action on pathogens
  •    Helps in developing disease suppressive soils
How to enhance biological suppressiveness
  •    1. Incorporation of crop residues in the soil
  •    2. Addition of organic amendment such as manures and compost
    •        i. Stimulate natural antagonist/ natural enemies of plant parasitic nematodes
    •        ii. It improves soil nutrients, soil physical conditions, and crop health

Biocontrol agents for important pathogens

Biological control agent (type of organism) Trade Name Target pathogens
Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K 84 (bacterium) Galltrol A Agrobacterium tumefacians (crown gall)
Ageobacterium radiobacter strain K 1026 (bacterium) Nagol Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Bacillus subtilis (bacterium) Companion Pythium, Fusarium, Phytophthora,
Steptomyces griseoviridis (bacterium) Mycostop Botrytis, Alternaria, Phomopsis, Pythium, Fusarium, Phytophthora
Pseudomonas fluorescence (bacterium) Frostban Schlerotina and Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Alternaria, Ascochyta, Cercospora, Macrophomina, Myrothecium & Ramularia, Downy mildews and Powdery mildews
Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain TX-1 (bacterium) Bio–jet, spot less Pythium, Rhizoctonia solani
Ampelomyces quisqualis (fungus) AG10 Powdery Mildew
Trichoderma harzianum (fungus) PlantShield or RootShield Pythium, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis ,powdery mildew, downy mildew, Sclerotinia
Trichoderma virens (fungus) SoilGard Pythium, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis ,powdery mildew, downy mildew, Sclerotinia
Aspergillus flavus AF36 (fungus) Alfa guard Aspergillus flavus
Gliocladium catenulatum strain JI446 (fungus) Prima stop, soil guard Pythium, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia

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